Allocation Of Frames

Allocation Of Frames

Allocation Of Frames

When a page fault occurs, there is a free frame available to store a new page into a frame. While the page swap is taking place, a replacement can be selected, which is written to the disk as the user process continues to execute. The operating system allocates all its buffer and tablespace from the free-frame list for the new page.

Two major allocation Algorithm/schemes.

  1. Equal allocation

  2. Proportional allocation

Equal allocation: The easiest way to split m frames among n processes is to give everyone an equal share, m/n frames. This is known as equal allocation.

proportional allocation: Here, it allocates available memory to each process according to its size. Let the size of the virtual memory for process pi be si, and define S= ∑ Si

Then, if the total number of available frames is m, we allocate ai frames to process pi, where ai is approximately   ai = Si/ S x m.

Global Versus Local Allocation

We can classify page-replacement algorithms into two broad categories: global replacement and local replacement.

Global replacement allows a process to select a replacement frame from the set of all frames, even if that frame is currently allocated to some other process; one process can take a frame from another.

Local replacement requires that each process selects from only its own set of allocated frames.

Thrashing:-

The system spends most of its time shuttling pages between main memory and secondary memory due to frequent page faults. This behavior is known as thrashing.

A process is thrashing if it is spending more time paging than executing. This leads to:

low CPU utilization and the operating system thinks that it needs to increase the degree of multiprogramming.

allocation of frame thrashing

(Thrashing)

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