LAN MAN WAN

LAN MAN WAN:- 1. LAN : § A local area network (LAN) is usually privately owned and links the devices in a single office, building, or campus. § Currently, LAN size is limited to a few kilometers. 2. MAN : § A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network with a size between a LAN… Continue reading LAN MAN WAN

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Connection Establishment in TCP

Connection Establishment In TCP:- Connection Establishmet in TCP, TCP transmits data in full-duplex mode. When two TCPs in two machines are connected, they are able to send segments to each other simultaneously. This implies that each party must initialize communication and get approval from the other party before any data are transferred. Three-Way Handshaking The… Continue reading Connection Establishment in TCP

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Process-to-process Communication

Process-to-process Communication The transport layer is responsible for process-to-process communication. Port Number : the port number defines one of the processes on this particular host lANA Ranges The lANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority) has divided the port numbers three ranges: well known, registered, and dynamic (or private) Well-known ports: The ports ranging from 0 to… Continue reading Process-to-process Communication

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Datagram

Datagram Packets in the IPv4 layer are called datagrams. A datagram is a variable-length packet consisting of two parts: header and data. The IPv4 datagram format is below. Version (VER) :  4-bit field defines the version of the IPv4 protocol.  Header length (HLEN) :  This 4-bit field defines the total length of the datagram header… Continue reading Datagram

IPV4

IPv4 The Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the delivery mechanism used by the TCP/IP protocols. IPv4 is an unreliable and connectionless datagram protocol. It provides no error control or flow control. IPv4 must be paired with a reliable protocol such as TCP. The Figure 20.4 shows the position of IPv4 in the suite. Data… Continue reading IPV4

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Addressing mode

Four levels of addressing mode are used in an internet employing the TCP/IP protocols: physical (link) addresses, logical (IP) addresses, port addresses, and specific addresses. Relationship of layers and addresses in TCP/IP 1. Physical Addresses • The physical address, also known as the link address, is the address of a node as defined by its… Continue reading Addressing mode

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TCP/ IP Protocol

TCP/IP protocol • The TCP IP protocol was developed prior to the OSI model. The layers in the TCP/ IP protocol suite do not exactly match those in the OSI model. The original TCP/IP protocol suite was defined as having four layers: host-to-network, internet, transport, and application. However, when TCP/IP is compared to OSI, we… Continue reading TCP/ IP Protocol

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Standards Organizations

Standards Organizations:- Standards organizations are developed through the cooperation of standards creation committees, forums, and government regulatory agencies. i)Standards Creation Committees:- While many organizations are dedicated to the establishment of standards, data telecommunications in North America rely primarily on those published by the following: 1.International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The ISO is a multinational body… Continue reading Standards Organizations

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OSI MODEL

OSI Model In the late 1970s, the ISO (International Standards Organization) introduced a network model named OSI model (Open Systems Interconnection). The purpose of the OSI model is to show how to facilitate communication between different systems without requiring changes to the logic of the underlying hardware and software. ISO is the organization. OSI is… Continue reading OSI MODEL

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Protocols and Standards

PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDS:- a) Protocols:- A protocol is synonymous with rule whereas standards are that agreed-upon rules.• A protocol is a set of rules that govern data communications.• A protocol defines what is communicated, how it is communicated, and when it is communicated.• The key elements of a protocol are syntax, semantics, and timing. Syntax:-… Continue reading Protocols and Standards

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