Four levels of addressing mode are used in an internet employing the TCP/IP protocols: physical (link) addresses, logical (IP) addresses, port addresses, and specific addresses. Relationship of layers and addresses in TCP/IP 1. Physical Addresses • The physical address, also known as the link address, is the address of a node as defined by its… Continue reading Addressing mode
TCP/IP protocol • The TCP IP protocol was developed prior to the OSI model. The layers in the TCP/ IP protocol suite do not exactly match those in the OSI model. The original TCP/IP protocol suite was defined as having four layers: host-to-network, internet, transport, and application. However, when TCP/IP is compared to OSI, we… Continue reading TCP/ IP Protocol
Standards Organizations:- Standards organizations are developed through the cooperation of standards creation committees, forums, and government regulatory agencies. i)Standards Creation Committees:- While many organizations are dedicated to the establishment of standards, data telecommunications in North America rely primarily on those published by the following: 1.International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The ISO is a multinational body… Continue reading Standards Organizations
OSI Model In the late 1970s, the ISO (International Standards Organization) introduced a network model named OSI model (Open Systems Interconnection). The purpose of the OSI model is to show how to facilitate communication between different systems without requiring changes to the logic of the underlying hardware and software. ISO is the organization. OSI is… Continue reading OSI MODEL
PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDS:- a) Protocols:- A protocol is synonymous with rule whereas standards are that agreed-upon rules.• A protocol is a set of rules that govern data communications.• A protocol defines what is communicated, how it is communicated, and when it is communicated.• The key elements of a protocol are syntax, semantics, and timing. Syntax:-… Continue reading Protocols and Standards
What is Internet? The Internet is a communication system that has brought a wealth of information to our fingertips and organized it for our use. The Internet is a structured, organized system. History of the Internet:- An internet (note the lowercase letter i) is two or more networks that can communicate with each other. In… Continue reading What is Internet ?
Physical Topology : It refers to the way in which a network is laid out physically or physical representation of the computer network is known as topology in networking. 1.Mesh Topology:- Every device has a dedicated point-to-point link to every other device. In mesh topology, we need (n*(n -1)) /2 duplex-mode links. Advantages : Dedicated… Continue reading Topology and its Types in Networking
a. Components Of Data Communication. Message : The message is the information (data) to be communicated. e.g text, numbers, pictures, audio, and video. Sender : The sender is the device that sends the data message. e.g computer, workstation, telephone handset, video camera, and so on. Receiver : The receiver is the device that receives the… Continue reading What are the Components of Data Communication?