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What are the Components of Data Communication?

Components Representation and flow Of Data Communication

a. Components Of Data Communication.

  1. Message :
     The message is the information (data) to be communicated.
     e.g text, numbers, pictures, audio, and video.
  2. Sender :
     The sender is the device that sends the data message.
     e.g computer, workstation, telephone handset, video camera, and so on.
  3. Receiver :
     The receiver is the device that receives the message.
     e.g computer, workstation, telephone handset, television, and so on.
  4. Transmission medium :
     The transmission medium is the physical path by which a message travels from sender to receiver.
     e.g transmission media include twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, and radio waves.
  5. Protocol :
     A protocol is a set of rules that govern data communications.
     It represents an agreement between the communicating devices.
     Without a protocol, two devices may be connected but not communicating, just as a person speaking French cannot be understood by a person who speaks only Japanese.

These are the main Components of Data Communication.

Note:- After reading the Components of Data Communication its very important to read about data representation.

b. Data Representations:-

 Information today comes in different forms such as
Text
 represented as a bit pattern i.e a sequence of bits (like 0s and 1s).
 Uses 32 bit Unicode and ASCII code representation
Numbers
 represented by bit patterns
Images
 Images are also represented by bit patterns.
 an image is composed of a matrix of pixels (picture elements), where each pixel is a small dot.
 The size of the pixel depends on the resolution.
 Combination of colors used for the image representation. Like RGB (red, green and blue) and YCM(yellow, cyan, and magenta)
Audio –
 Audio refers to the recording or broadcasting of sound or music.
 Analog and Digital signals are used for audio representation.
Video –
 Video refers to the recording or broadcasting of a picture or movie.
 Video can either be produced as a continuous entity (e.g., by a TV camera), or it can be a combination of images, each a discrete entity, arranged to convey the idea of motion.
 Video can be changed to a digital or an analog signal.

Note:- Components of data communication and data representation for data flow.

c. Data Flow:-

 Communication between two devices can be of three types i.e simplex, half-duplex, or full-duplex.

Components Representation and flow Of Data Communication
  1. Simplex :
     In simplex mode, the communication is unidirectional.
     Only one of the two devices on a link can transmit; the other can only receive.
     E.g Keyboards and traditional monitors.
  2. Half-Duplex :
     In this type, each station can both transmit and receive, but not at the same time.
     When one device is sending, the other can only receive, and vice versa.
     E.g Walkie-talkies and CB (citizens band) radios
  3. Full-Duplex :
     Both stations can transmit and receive simultaneously.
     The capacity of the channel, however, must be divided between the two directions.

Components of data communication , Data representation and data flow are basic fundamental in data communication chapter

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