The concurrent processes executing in the operating system may be either independent processes or cooperating processes. A process is independent if it cannot affect or be affected by the other processes executing in the system. Clearly, any process that does not share any data (temporary or persistent) with any other process is independent. On the other hand, a process is cooperating if it can affect or be affected by the other processes executing in the system. Clearly, any process that shares data with other processes is a cooperating process.
Advantages of process cooperation
Since several users may be interested in the same piece of information (for instance, a shared file), we must provide an environment to allow concurrent access to these types of resources.
If we want a particular task to run faster, we must break it into subtasks, each of which will be executing in parallel with the others. Such a speedup can be achieved only if the computer has multiple processing elements (such as CPUs or I/O channels).
We may want to construct the system in a modular fashion, dividing the system functions into separate processes or threads
Even an individual user may have many tasks on which to work at one time. For instance, a user may be editing, printing, and compiling in parallel.
Concurrent execution of cooperating processes requires mechanisms that allow processes to communicate with one another and to synchronize their actions.