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DCCN

LAN MAN WAN

LAN MAN WAN:- 1. LAN : § A local area network (LAN) is usually privately owned and links the devices in a single office, building, or campus. § Currently, LAN size is limited to a few kilometers. 2. MAN : § A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network with a size between a LAN […]

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DCCN

Connection Establishment in TCP

Connection Establishment In TCP:- Connection Establishmet in TCP, TCP transmits data in full-duplex mode. When two TCPs in two machines are connected, they are able to send segments to each other simultaneously. This implies that each party must initialize communication and get approval from the other party before any data are transferred. Three-Way Handshaking The […]

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DCCN

Process-to-process Communication

Process-to-process Communication The transport layer is responsible for process-to-process communication. Port Number : the port number defines one of the processes on this particular host lANA Ranges The lANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority) has divided the port numbers three ranges: well known, registered, and dynamic (or private) Well-known ports: The ports ranging from 0 to […]

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DCCN

Datagram

Datagram Packets in the IPv4 layer are called datagrams. A datagram is a variable-length packet consisting of two parts: header and data. The IPv4 datagram format is below. Version (VER) :  4-bit field defines the version of the IPv4 protocol.  Header length (HLEN) :  This 4-bit field defines the total length of the datagram header […]

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DCCN

IPV4

IPv4 The Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the delivery mechanism used by the TCP/IP protocols. IPv4 is an unreliable and connectionless datagram protocol. It provides no error control or flow control. IPv4 must be paired with a reliable protocol such as TCP. The Figure 20.4 shows the position of IPv4 in the suite. Data […]

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DCCN

Addressing mode

Four levels of addressing mode are used in an internet employing the TCP/IP protocols: physical (link) addresses, logical (IP) addresses, port addresses, and specific addresses. Relationship of layers and addresses in TCP/IP 1. Physical Addresses • The physical address, also known as the link address, is the address of a node as defined by its […]

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DCCN

TCP/ IP Protocol

TCP/IP protocol • The TCP IP protocol was developed prior to the OSI model. The layers in the TCP/ IP protocol suite do not exactly match those in the OSI model. The original TCP/IP protocol suite was defined as having four layers: host-to-network, internet, transport, and application. However, when TCP/IP is compared to OSI, we […]

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DCCN

Standards Organizations

Standards Organizations:- Standards organizations are developed through the cooperation of standards creation committees, forums, and government regulatory agencies. i)Standards Creation Committees:- While many organizations are dedicated to the establishment of standards, data telecommunications in North America rely primarily on those published by the following: 1.International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The ISO is a multinational body […]

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DCCN

OSI MODEL

OSI Model In the late 1970s, the ISO (International Standards Organization) introduced a network model named OSI model (Open Systems Interconnection). The purpose of the OSI model is to show how to facilitate communication between different systems without requiring changes to the logic of the underlying hardware and software. ISO is the organization. OSI is […]

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DCCN

Protocols and Standards

PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDS:- a) Protocols:- A protocol is synonymous with rule whereas standards are that agreed-upon rules.• A protocol is a set of rules that govern data communications.• A protocol defines what is communicated, how it is communicated, and when it is communicated.• The key elements of a protocol are syntax, semantics, and timing. Syntax:- […]

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DCCN

What is Internet ?

What is Internet? The Internet is a communication system that has brought a wealth of information to our fingertips and organized it for our use. The Internet is a structured, organized system. History of the Internet:- An internet (note the lowercase letter i) is two or more networks that can communicate with each other. In […]

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DCCN

Topology and its Types in Networking

Physical Topology : It refers to the way in which a network is laid out physically or physical representation of the computer network is known as topology in networking. 1.Mesh Topology:- Every device has a dedicated point-to-point link to every other device. In mesh topology, we need (n*(n -1)) /2 duplex-mode links. Advantages : Dedicated […]

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DCCN

What are the Components of Data Communication?

a. Components Of Data Communication. Message : The message is the information (data) to be communicated. e.g text, numbers, pictures, audio, and video. Sender : The sender is the device that sends the data message. e.g computer, workstation, telephone handset, video camera, and so on. Receiver : The receiver is the device that receives the […]

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Core JAVA

Top 40 JAVA Programming Questions

JAVA Programming Questions How to add argument in java Program for Create an Array in JAVA Factorial Program in JAVA Write a Program to find out greatest between float number using Command line. Program for Local Variable in JAVA Constructor Program in JAVA Copy Constructor in JAVA PrimeFactor Program in JAVA Pyramid Program in JAVA […]

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ARM Processor

Types Of ARM Instruction

ARM Instruction Types of ARM instruction, The ARM  processor uses 3 types of instructions :- Data Processing instruction Data Transfer instruction Flow control Instruction Data Processing Instruction Data Processing instruction are used for processing of data i.e, they are used mainly for some calculation. The processing operation are again scheduled in two types :- Arithmetical […]