web analytics


Protocols and Standards

a) Protocols:-

A protocol is synonymous with rule whereas standards are that agreed-upon rules.
• A protocol is a set of rules that govern data communications.
• A protocol defines what is communicated, how it is communicated, and when it is communicated.
• The key elements of a protocol are syntax, semantics, and timing.


• Syntax is the structure or format of the data i.e the order in which they are presented.
• For example, a simple protocol might expect the first 8 bits of data to be the address of the sender, the second 8 bits to be the address of the receiver, and the rest of the stream to be the message itself.


• Semantics refers to the meaning of each section of bits.
• i.e How is a particular pattern to be interpreted, and what action is to be taken based on that interpretation?
• For example, does an address identify the route to be taken or the final destination of the message?


• It refers to two characteristics:
• when data should be sent and
• how fast they can be sent.
• For example, if a sender produces data at 100 Mbps but the receiver can process data at only 1 Mbps, the transmission will overload the receiver and some data will be lost.


  • Standards provide guidelines to manufacturers, vendors, government agencies, and other service providers to ensure the kind of interconnectivity necessary in today’s marketplace and in international communications.
  • Data communication standards fall into two categories:
    • de facto (meaning “by fact” or “by convention”) and
    • de jure (meaning “by law” or “by regulation”).
Protocols and Standards

• De facto:-
Standards that have not been approved by an organized body but have been adopted as standards through widespread use are de facto standards.
• De jure:-
Those standards that have been legislated by an officially recognized body are de jure standards.

Related Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.