Standards organizations are developed through the cooperation of standards creation committees, forums, and government regulatory agencies.
i)Standards Creation Committees:-
While many organizations are dedicated to the establishment of standards, data telecommunications in North America rely primarily on those published by the following:
1.International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
- The ISO is a multinational body whose membership is drawn mainly from the standards creation committees of various governments throughout the world. The ISO is active in developing cooperation in the realms of scientific, technological, and economic activity.
2.International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standards Sector (ITU-T).
- The United Nations responded by forming, as part of its International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a committee, the Consultative Committee for International Telegraphy and Telephony (CCITT).
3.American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
- The American National Standards Institute is a completely private, non-profit corporation not affiliated with the U.S. federal government.
4.Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
- The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is the largest professional engineering society in the world.
- International in scope, it aims to advance theory, creativity, and product quality in the fields of electrical engineering, electronics, and radio as well as in all related branches of engineering.
- As one of its goals, the IEEE oversees the development and adoption of international standards for computing and communications.
5.Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
- Aligned with ANSI, the Electronic Industries Association is a non-profit organization devoted to the promotion of electronics manufacturing concerns.
- Many special-interest groups have developed forums made up of representatives from interested corporations.
- The forums work with universities and users to test, evaluate, and standardize new technologies.
- The forums present their conclusions to the standards bodies.
iii) Regulatory Agencies:-
- All communications technology is subject to regulation by government agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the United States.
- The purpose of these agencies is to protect the public interest by regulating radio, television,
and wire/cable communications.
- The FCC has authority over interstate and international commerce as it relates to communications.
- An Internet standard is a thoroughly tested specification that is useful to and adhered to by those who work with the Internet.
- There is a strict procedure by which a specification attains Internet standard status.
- A specification begins as an Internet draft.
- An Internet draft is a working document (a work in progress) with no official status and a 6-month lifetime.
- Upon recommendation from the Internet authorities, a draft may be published as a Request for Comment (RFC).
- Each RFC is edited, assigned a number, and made available to all interested parties.
- RFCs go through maturity levels and are categorized according to their requirement level.