Synchronization Hardware

Synchronization Hardware

Synchronization Hardware

As with other aspects of software, hardware features can make the programming task easier and improve system efficiency. In this section, we present some simple hardware instructions that are available on many systems and show how they can be used effectively in solving the critical-section problem.

The definition of the TestAndSet instruction.

boolean TestAndSet(boo1ean &target)


boolean rv = target;

target = true;

return rv;


The critical-section problem can be solved simply in a uniprocessor environment if we could forbid interrupts to occur while a shared variable is being modified. In this manner, we could be sure that the current sequence of instructions would be allowed to execute in order without preemption. No other instructions would be run, so no unexpected modifications could be made to the shared variable.

Unfortunately, this solution is not feasible in a multiprocessor environment. Disabling interrupts on a multiprocessor can be time-consuming, as the message is passed to all the processors. This message passing delays entry into each critical section and system efficiency decreases. Also, consider the effect on a system’s clock, if the clock is kept updated by interrupts.

Many machines, therefore, provide special hardware instructions that allow us either to test and modify the content of a word or to swap the contents of two words, atomically-that is, as one uninterruptible unit. We can use these special instructions to solve the critical-section problem in a relatively simple manner. Rather than discussing one specific instruction for one specific machine, let us abstract the main concepts behind these types of instructions.

The TestAndSet instruction can be defined as shown in the code. The important characteristic is that this instruction is executed atomically. Thus, if two TestAndSet instructions are executed simultaneously (each on a different CPU), they will be executed sequentially in some arbitrary order.

Mutual-exclusion implementation with TestAndSet



critical section


Remainder section


void Swap(boo1ean &a, boolean &b)


boolean temp = a;

a = b;

b = temp


If the machine supports the TestAndSet instruction, then we can implement mutual exclusion by declaring a Boolean variable lock, initialized to false.

If the machine supports the Swap instruction, then mutual exclusion can be provided as follows. A global Boolean variable lock is declared and is initialized to false. In addition, each process also has a local Boolean variable key.



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