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TCP/IP protocol

TCP/IP protocol

• The TCP IP protocol was developed prior to the OSI model. The layers in the TCP/ IP protocol suite do not exactly match those in the OSI model. The original TCP/IP protocol suite was defined as having four layers: host-to-network, internet, transport, and application. However, when TCP/IP is compared to OSI, we can say that the TCP/IP protocol suite is made of five layers: physical, data link, network, transport, and application.

  • TCP stands for Transfer control protocol.
  • IP stands for internet protocol.

1. Physical and Data Link Layers

  • The physical layer specifies the work and characteristic of computer hardware which is used for the network.
  • The data link layer has two sublayers 1. logical link control (LLC) 2. media access control (MAC)

2. Network Layer

a. Internet protocol(IP)

  • The Internetworking Protocol (IP) is the transmission mechanism used by the TCP/IP protocols.
  • It is an unreliable and connectionless protocol-a best-effort delivery service.

b. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

  • The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a mechanism used by hosts and gateways to send notification of datagram problems back to the sender. ICMP sends query and error reporting messages.

c. Internet Group Multicast Protocol(IGMP)

  • The Internet Group Message Protocol (IGMP) is used to facilitate the simultaneous transmission of a message to a group of recipients.

d. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

  • The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used to associate a logical address with a physical address. ARP is used to find the physical address of the node when its Internet address is known

e. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)

  • The Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) allows a host to discover its Internet address when it knows only its physical address.

3. Transport Layer

  • Transport layer was represented in TCP/IP by two protocols: TCP and UDP.

a. TCP

  •  Provides full transport-layer services to applications. TCP is a reliable stream transport protocol. The term stream, in this context, means connection-oriented:

b. UDP

  • It is a process-to-process protocol that adds only port addresses, checksum error control, and length information to the data from the upper layer.

c. SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol)

  • SCTP provides support for newer applications such as voice over the Internet.

4. Application Layer

  • It is equivalent to the combined session, presentation, and application layers in the OSI model.

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