vertically pointing radars: Topics by Science.gov

  • Space Radar Image of the Silk route in Niya, Taklamak, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This composite image is of an area thought to contain the ruins of the ancient settlement of Niya. It is located in the southwest corner of the Taklamakan Desert in China’s Sinjiang Province. This region was part of some of China’s earliest dynasties and from the third century BC on was traversed by the famous Silk Road. The Silk Road, passing east-west through this image, was an ancient trade route that led across Central Asia’s desert to Persia, Byzantium and Rome. The multi-frequency, multi-polarized radar imagery was acquired on orbit 106 of the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar. The image is centered at 37.78 degrees north latitude and 82.41 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 35 kilometers by 83 kilometers (22 miles by 51 miles). The image is a composite of an image from an Earth-orbiting satellite called Systeme Probatoire d’Observation de la Terre (SPOT)and a SIR-C multi-frequency, multi-polarized radar image. The false-color radar image was created by displaying the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in red, the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in green, and the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) return in blue. The prominent east/west pink formation at the bottom of the image is most likely a ridge of loosely consolidated sedimentary rock. The Niya River — the black feature in the lower right of the French satellite image — meanders north-northeast until it clears the sedimentary ridge, at which point it abruptly turns northwest. Sediment and evaporite deposits left by the river over millennia dominate the center and upper right of the radar image (in light pink). High ground, ridges and dunes are seen among the riverbed meanderings as mottled blue. Through image enhancement and analysis, a new feature probably representing a man-made canal has been discovered and mapped. Spaceborne Imaging Radar

  • The 94 GHz Cloud Radar System on a NASA ER-2 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Lihua; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Racette, Paul E.; Tian, Lin; Zenker, Ed

    2003-01-01

    The 94-GHz (W-band) Cloud Radar System (CRS) has been developed and flown on a NASA ER-2 high-altitude (20 km) aircraft. The CRS is a fully coherent, polarimeteric Doppler radar that is capable of detecting clouds and precipitation from the surface up to the aircraft altitude in the lower stratosphere. The radar is especially well suited for cirrus cloud studies because of its high sensitivity and fine spatial resolution. This paper describes the CRS motivation, instrument design, specifications, calibration, and preliminary data &om NASA s Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers – Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) field campaign. The unique combination of CRS with other sensors on the ER-2 provides an unprecedented opportunity to study cloud radiative effects on the global energy budget. CRS observations are being used to improve our knowledge of atmospheric scattering and attenuation characteristics at 94 GHz, and to provide datasets for algorithm implementation and validation for the upcoming NASA CloudSat mission that will use a 94-GHz spaceborne cloud radar to provide the first direct global survey of the vertical structure of cloud systems.

  • Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    These two false-color images of the Manaus region of Brazil in South America were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at left was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the image at right was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this image, the Rio Negro (at top) and the Rio Solimoes (at bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the image) to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the images. The false colors were created by displaying three L-band polarization channels: red areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and received, while green areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. Blue areas show low returns at vertical transmit/receive polarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces can be seen. Using this color scheme, green areas in the image are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest or floating meadows. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April image than in the October image and appears to follow the 10-meter (33-foot) annual rise and fall of the Amazon River. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish, and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. These images demonstrate the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies block monitoring of flooding. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil’s Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas

  • Quality Control and Calibration of the Dual-Polarization Radar at Kwajalein, RMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, David A.; Wolff, David B.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Tokay, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Weather radars, recording information about precipitation around the globe, will soon be significantly upgraded. Most of today s weather radars transmit and receive microwave energy with horizontal orientation only, but upgraded systems have the capability to send and receive both horizontally and vertically oriented waves. These enhanced “dual-polarimetric” (DP) radars peer into precipitation and provide information on the size, shape, phase (liquid / frozen), and concentration of the falling particles (termed hydrometeors). This information is valuable for improved rain rate estimates, and for providing data on the release and absorption of heat in the atmosphere from condensation and evaporation (phase changes). The heating profiles in the atmosphere influence global circulation, and are a vital component in studies of Earth s changing climate. However, to provide the most accurate interpretation of radar data, the radar must be properly calibrated and data must be quality controlled (cleaned) to remove non-precipitation artifacts; both of which are challenging tasks for today s weather radar. The DP capability maximizes performance of these procedures using properties of the observed precipitation. In a notable paper published in 2005, scientists from the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS) at the University of Oklahoma developed a method to calibrate radars using statistically averaged DP measurements within light rain. An additional publication by one of the same scientists at the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) in Norman, Oklahoma introduced several techniques to perform quality control of radar data using DP measurements. Following their lead, the Topical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite Validation Office at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center has fine-tuned these methods for specific application to the weather radar at Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, approximately 2100 miles

  • Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    To understand better how a borehole antenna radiates radar waves into a formation, this phenomenon is simulated numerically using the finite-difference, time-domain method. The simulations are of two different antenna models that include features like a driving point fed by a coaxial cable, resistive loading of the antenna, and a water-filled borehole. For each model, traces are calculated in the far-field region, and then, from these traces, radiation patterns are calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave is strongly affected by its frequency, its propagation direction, and the resistive loading of the antenna.

  • Radar image with color as height, Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth’s surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space

  • Effect of ray and speed perturbations on ionospheric tomography by over-the-horizon radar: A new method, useful for SuperDarn radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbeis, J.; Roy, C.; Bland, E. C.; Occhipinti, G.

    2017-12-01

    Most recent methods in ionospheric tomography are based on the inversion of the total electron content measured by ground-based GPS receivers. As a consequence of the high frequency of the GPS signal and the absence of horizontal raypaths, the electron density structure is mainly reconstructed in the F2 region (300 km), where the ionosphere reaches the maximum of ionization, and is not sensitive to the lower ionospheric structure. We propose here a new tomographic method of the lower ionosphere (Roy et al., 2014), based on the full inversion of over-the-horizon (OTH) radar data and applicable to SuperDarn data. The major advantage of our methodology is taking into account, numerically and jointly, the effect that the electron density perturbations induce not only in the speed of electromagnetic waves but also on the raypath geometry. This last point is extremely critical for OTH/SuperDarn data inversions as the emitted signal propagates through the ionosphere between a fixed starting point (the radar) and an unknown end point on the Earth surface where the signal is backscattered. We detail our ionospheric tomography method with the aid of benchmark tests in order to highlight the sensitivity of the radar related to the explored observational parameters: frequencies, elevations, azimuths. Having proved the necessity to take into account both effects simultaneously, we apply our method to real backscattered data from Super Darn and OTH radar. The preliminary solution obtained with the Hokkaido East SuperDARN with only two frequencies (10MHz and 11MHz), showed here, is stable and push us to deeply explore a more complete dataset that we will present at the AGU 2017. This is, in our knowledge, the first time that an ionospheric tomography has been estimated with SuperDarn backscattered data. Reference: Roy, C., G. Occhipinti, L. Boschi, J.-P. Moliné, and M. Wieczorek (2014), Effect of ray and speed perturbations on ionospheric tomography by over-the-horizon radar: A

  • The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission: A Global DEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Kobrick, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Digital topographic data are critical for a variety of civilian, commercial, and military applications. Scientists use Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to map drainage patterns and ecosystems, and to monitor land surface changes over time. The mountain-building effects of tectonics and the climatic effects of erosion can also be modeled with DEW The data’s military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling and simulation. Commercial applications include determining locations for cellular phone towers, enhanced ground proximity warning systems for aircraft, and improved maps for backpackers. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) (Fig. 1), is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense. The mission is designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth’s land surface between about 60 degrees north and south latitude. The DEM will have 30 m pixel spacing and about 15 m vertical errors.

  • Measurement of Attenuation with Airborne and Ground-Based Radar in Convective Storms Over Land and Its Microphysical Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, G. M.; Srivastava, R. C.; Starr, D. OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Observations by the airborne X-band Doppler radar (EDOP) and the NCAR S-band polarimetric (S-POL) radar from two field experiments are used to evaluate the Surface ref’ercnce technique (SRT) for measuring the path integrated attenuation (PIA) and to study attenuation in deep convective storms. The EDOP, flying at an altitude of 20 km, uses a nadir beam and a forward pointing beam. It is found that over land, the surface scattering cross-section is highly variable at nadir incidence but relatively stable at forward incidence. It is concluded that measurement by the forward beam provides a viable technique for measuring PIA using the SRT. Vertical profiles of peak attenuation coefficient are derived in vxo deep convective storms by the dual-wavelength method. Using the measured Doppler velocity, the reflectivities at. the two wavelengths, the differential reflectivity and the estimated attenuation coefficients, it is shown that: supercooled drops and dry ice particles probably co-existed above the melting level in regions of updraft, that water-coated partially melted ice particles probably contributed to high attenuation below the melting level, and that the data are not readil explained in terms of a gamma function raindrop size distribution.

  • Spaceborne Applications of P Band Imaging Radars for Measuring Forest Biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric J.; Zimmermann, Reiner; vanZyl, Jakob J.

    1995-01-01

    In three sites of boreal and temperate forests, P band HH, HV, and VV polarization data combined estimate total aboveground dry woody biomass within 12 to 27% of the values derived from allometric equations, depending on forest complexity. Biomass estimates derived from HV-polarization data only are 2 to 14% less accurate. When the radar operates at circular polarization, the errors exceed 100% over flooded forests, wet or damaged trees and sparse open tall forests because double-bounce reflections of the radar signals yield radar signatures similar to that of tall and massive forests. Circular polarizations, which minimize the effect of Faraday rotation in spaceborne applications, are therefore of limited use for measuring forest biomass. In the tropical rain forest of Manu, in Peru, where forest biomass ranges from 4 kg/sq m in young forest succession up to 50 kg/sq m in old, undisturbed floodplain stands, the P band horizontal and vertical polarization data combined separate biomass classes in good agreement with forest inventory estimates. The worldwide need for large scale, updated, biomass estimates, achieved with a uniformly applied method, justifies a more in-depth exploration of multi-polarization long wavelength imaging radar applications for tropical forests inventories.

  • TRMM Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager Observations of Convective and Stratiform Rain Over Land and Their Theoretical Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Weinman, J. A.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Observations of brightness temperature, Tb made over land regions by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) radiometer have been analyzed along with the nearly simultaneous measurements of the vertical profiles of reflectivity factor, Z, made by the Precipitation Radar (PR) onboard the TRMM satellite. This analysis is performed to explore the interrelationship between the TMI and PR data in areas that are covered predominantly by convective or stratiform rain. In particular, we have compared on a scale of 20 km, average vertical profiles of Z with the averages of Tbs in the 19, 37 and 85 GHz channels. Generally, we find from these data that as Z increases, Tbs in the three channels decrease due to extinction. In order to explain physically the relationship between the Tb and Z observations, we have performed radiative transfer simulations utilizing vertical profiles of hydrometeors applicable to convective and stratiform rain regions. These profiles are constructed taking guidance from the Z observations of PR and recent LDR and ZDR measurements made by land-based polarimetric radars.

  • Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These two false-color images of the Manaus region of Brazil in South America were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at left was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the image at right was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this image, the Rio Negro (at top) and the Rio Solimoes (at bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the image) to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the images. The false colors were created by displaying three L-band polarization channels: red areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and received, while green areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. Blue areas show low returns at vertical transmit/receive polarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces can be seen. Using this color scheme, green areas in the image are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest or floating meadows. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April image than in the October image and appears to follow the 10-meter (33-foot) annual rise and fall of the Amazon River. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish, and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. These images demonstrate the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies block monitoring of flooding. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil’s Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas

  • Preliminary Findings of Inflight Icing Field Test to Support Icing Remote Sensing Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael; Reehorst, Andrew; Serke, Dave

    2015-01-01

    NASA and the National Center for Atmospheric Research have developed an icing remote sensing technology that has demonstrated skill at detecting and classifying icing hazards in a vertical column above an instrumented ground station. This technology has recently been extended to provide volumetric coverage surrounding an airport. Building on the existing vertical pointing system, the new method for providing volumetric coverage will utilize a vertical pointing cloud radar, a multifrequency microwave radiometer with azimuth and elevation pointing, and a NEXRAD radar. The new terminal area icing remote sensing system processes the data streams from these instruments to derive temperature, liquid water content, and cloud droplet size for each examined point in space. These data are then combined to ultimately provide icing hazard classification along defined approach paths into an airport.

  • Space Radar Image of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the famous ‘hook’ of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The Cape, which juts out into the Atlantic Ocean about 100 kilometers (62 miles) southeast of Boston, actually consists of sandy debris left behind by the great continental ice sheets when they last retreated from southern New England about 20,000 years ago. Today’s landscape consists of sandy forests, fields of scrub oak and other bushes and grasses, salt marshes, freshwater ponds, as well as the famous beaches and sand dunes. In this image, thickly forested areas appear green, marshes are dark blue, ponds and sandy areas are black, and developed areas are mostly pink. The dark L-shape in the lower center is the airport runways in Hyannis, the Cape’s largest town. The dark X-shape left of the center is Otis Air Force Base. The Cape Cod Canal, above and left of center, connects Buzzards Bay on the left with Cape Cod Bay on the right. The northern tip of the island of Martha’s Vineyard is seen in the lower left. The tip of the Cape, in the upper right, includes the community of Provincetown, which appears pink, and the protected National Seashore areas of sand dunes that parallel the Atlantic coast east of Provincetown. Scientists are using radar images like this one to study delicate coastal environments and the effects of human activities on the ecosystem and landscape. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 15, 1994. The image is 81.7 kilometers by 43.1 kilometers (50.7 miles by 26.7 miles) and is centered at 41.8 degrees north latitude, 70.3 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. SIR

  • Joint application of Geoelectrical Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar techniques for the study of hyper-saturated zones. Case study in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbah, Hany S.; Morsy, Essam A.; Soliman, Mamdouh M.; Kabeel, Khamis

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the application of the Geoelectrical Resistivity Sounding (GRS) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for outlining and investigating of surface springing out (flow) of groundwater to the base of an service building site, and determining the reason(s) for the zone of maximum degree of saturation; in addition to provide stratigraphic information for this site. The studied economic building is constructed lower than the ground surface by about 7 m. A Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) survey was performed at 12 points around the studied building in order to investigate the vertical and lateral extent of the subsurface sequence, three VES’s were conducted at each side of the building at discrete distances. And a total of 9 GPR profiles with 100- and 200-MHz antennae were conducted, with the objective of evaluating the depth and the degree of saturation of the subsurface layers. The qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the acquired VES’s showed easily the levels of saturations close to and around the studied building. From the interpretation of GPR profiles, it was possible to locate and determine the saturated layers. The radar signals are penetrated and enabled the identification of the subsurface reflectors. The results of GPR and VES showed a good agreement and the integrated interpretations were supported by local geology. Finally, the new constructed geoelectrical resistivity cross-sections (in contoured-form), are easily clarifying the direction of groundwater flow toward the studied building.

  • Radar stage uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, J.M.; Davies, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the performance of radars used for stage (or water-level) measurement. This paper presents a comparison of estimated uncertainties and data for radar water-level measurements with float, bubbler, and wire weight water-level measurements. The radar sensor was also temperature-tested in a laboratory. The uncertainty estimates indicate that radar measurements are more accurate than uncorrected pressure sensors at higher water stages, but are less accurate than pressure sensors at low stages. Field data at two sites indicate that radar sensors may have a small negative bias. Comparison of field radar measurements with wire weight measurements found that the radar tends to measure slightly lower values as stage increases. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  • A portable CW/FM-CW Doppler radar for local investigation of severe storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, Wesley P.; Wolf, Michael A.; Bluestein, Howard B.

    During the 1987 spring storm season we used a portable 1-W X-band CW Doppler radar to probe a tornado, a funnel cloud, and a wall cloud in Oklahoma and Texas. This same device was used during the spring storm season in 1988 to probe a wall cloud in Texas. The radar was battery powered and highly portable, and thus convenient to deploy from our chase vehicle. The device separated the receding and approaching Doppler velocities in real time and, while the radar was being used, it allowed convenient stereo data recording for later spectral analysis and operator monitoring of the Doppler signals in stereo headphones. This aural monitoring, coupled with the ease with which an operator can be trained to recognize the nature of the signals heard, made the radar very easy to operate reliably and significantly enhanced the quality of the data being recorded. At the end of the 1988 spring season, the radar was modified to include FM-CW ranging and processing. These modifications were based on a unique combination of video recording and FM chirp generation, which incorporated a video camera and recorder as an integral part of the radar. After modification, the radar retains its convenient portability and the operational advantage of being able to listen to the Doppler signals directly. The original mechanical design was unaffected by these additions. During the summer of 1988, this modified device was used at the Langmuir Laboratory at Socorro, New Mexico in an attempt to measure vertical convective flow in a thunderstorm.

  • The Tropical Convective Spectrum. Part 1; Archetypal Vertical Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    A taxonomy of tropical convective and stratiform vertical structures is constructed through cluster analysis of 3 yr of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) “warm-season” (surface temperature greater than 10 C) precipitation radar (PR) vertical profiles, their surface rainfall, and associated radar-based classifiers (convective/ stratiform and brightband existence). Twenty-five archetypal profile types are identified, including nine convective types, eight stratiform types, two mixed types, and six anvil/fragment types (nonprecipitating anvils and sheared deep convective profiles). These profile types are then hierarchically clustered into 10 similar families, which can be further combined, providing an objective and physical reduction of the highly multivariate PR data space that retains vertical structure information. The taxonomy allows for description of any storm or local convective spectrum by the profile types or families. The analysis provides a quasi-independent corroboration of the TRMM 2A23 convective/ stratiform classification. The global frequency of occurrence and contribution to rainfall for the profile types are presented, demonstrating primary rainfall contribution by midlevel glaciated convection (27%) and similar depth decaying/stratiform stages (28%-31%). Profiles of these types exhibit similar 37- and 85-GHz passive microwave brightness temperatures but differ greatly in their frequency of occurrence and mean rain rates, underscoring the importance to passive microwave rain retrieval of convective/stratiform discrimination by other means, such as polarization or texture techniques, or incorporation of lightning observations. Close correspondence is found between deep convective profile frequency and annualized lightning production, and pixel-level lightning occurrence likelihood directly tracks the estimated mean ice water path within profile types.

  • Radar-derived asteroid shapes point to a ‘zone of stability’ for topography slopes and surface erosion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J.; Graves, K.; Bowling, T.

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies of the combined effects of asteroid shape, spin, and self-gravity have focused primarily upon the failure limits for bodies with a variety of standard shapes, friction, and cohesion values [1,2,3]. In this study, we look in the opposite direction and utilize 22 asteroid shape-models derived from radar inversion [4] and 7 small body shape-models derived from spacecraft observations [5] to investigate the region in shape/spin space [1,2] wherein self-gravity and rotation combine to produce a stable minimum state with respect to surface potential differences, dynamic topography, slope magnitudes, and erosion rates. This erosional minimum state is self-correcting, such that changes in the body’s rotation rate, either up or down, will increase slope magnitudes across the body, thereby driving up erosion rates non-linearly until the body has once again reached a stable, minimized surface state [5]. We investigated this phenomenon in a systematic fashion using a series of synthesized, increasingly prolate spheroid shape models. Adjusting the rotation rate of each synthetic shape to minimize surface potential differences, dynamic topography, and slope magnitudes results in the magenta curve of the figure (right side), defining the zone of maximum surface stability (MSS). This MSS zone is invariant both with respect to body size (gravitational potential and rotational potential scale together with radius), and density when the scaled-spin of [2] is used. Within our sample of observationally derived small-body shape models, slow rotators (Group A: blue points), that are not in the maximum surface stability (MSS) zone and where gravity dominates the slopes, will generally experience moderate erosion rates (left plot) and will tend to move up and to the right in shape/spin space as the body evolves (right plot). Fast rotators (Group C: red points), that are not in the MSS zone and where spin dominates the slopes, will generally experience high erosion rates

  • Use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization, multi-angle airborne radars for class discrimination in a southern temperature forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, N. C.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of radar scatterometers for discrimination and characterization of natural vegetation was investigated. Backscatter measurements were acquired with airborne multi-frequency, multi-polarization, multi-angle radar scatterometers over a test site in a southern temperate forest. Separability between ground cover classes was studied using a two-class separability measure. Very good separability is achieved between most classes. Longer wavelength is useful in separating trees from non-tree classes, while shorter wavelength and cross polarization are helpful for discrimination among tree classes. Using the maximum likelihood classifier, 50% overall classification accuracy is achieved using a single, short-wavelength scatterometer channel. Addition of multiple incidence angles and another radar band improves classification accuracy by 20% and 50%, respectively, over the single channel accuracy. Incorporation of a third radar band seems redundant for vegetation classification. Vertical transmit polarization is critically important for all classes.

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